Drug Induced Nutrient Depletions: Cholesterol Meds

 

Drug induced nutrient depletions (DIND) refers to the nutrients that are depleted from our bodies as a result of the prescription and over-the-counter medications that we take every day.  This will be a multi-part series in which I will focus on a different drug classes each week. Last week, we focused on the nutrients depleted from the use of antibiotics and in week one we looked at oral contraceptives. This week for part three, we will explore the nutrients that are depleted due to the use of antihyperlipidemic agents.

 

Antihyperlipidemic agents are one of the most frequently prescribed medications (1).  Hyperlipidemia is a broad term used to describe many acquired or genetic disorders that can lead to a high level of lipids (fats, cholesterol and triglycerides) to circulate in the blood (2). The problem with this is that these lipids can enter the walls of your arteries and increases your risk of developing atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).  Atherosclerosis can lead to a stroke or a heart attack. There are many lifestyle factors that can increase your risk of atherosclerosis including smoking, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition. Having or developing diabetes, high blood pressure and kidney failure can also put you at increased risk for atherosclerosis (2).

 

Common medications used to treat hyperlipidemia and the nutrients they deplete (3, 4):

  • Statins-Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin E, Beta Carotene

  • Bile acid binding resins-Beta Carotene, Folic Acid, Vitamins A, B12, D, E, K, Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc

  • Fibrates-Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin E, Potassium

 

Coenzyme Q10

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement: 30-100mg (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  Beef, chicken, trout, salmon, oranges, broccoli (4)

 

Phosphorus

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement: 700 mg (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  Plain yogurt, lentils, salmon, milk, halibut (4)

 

Vitamin D

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement: 400 IU (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  Salmon, mackerel, sardines, eel, fortified milk, cod liver oil, sword fish, tuna, fortified orange juice (4,5)

 

Calcium

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement: 1,200 mg (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  Milk, dried figs, cheese, yogurt tofu, sardines, dairy alternatives, fortified cereal, salmon, dark leafy greens (4,5)

 

Vitamin A

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement: 5,000 IU (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  Beef, liver, chicken, milk, sweet potato, carrots, pumpkin, spinach, red peppers, cantaloupe, chedder cheese, fortified cereal (4,5)

 

Vitamin E

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement: 400 IU (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  Wheat germ oil, almonds, safflower oil, corn oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, hazelnuts, peanut butter (4,5)

 

Beta Carotene

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement: 25,000 IU (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  Carrots, spinach, mango, cantaloupe, apricot nectar  (4)

 

Folic Acid

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement: 400-800 mcg (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  Vegetables (especially dark green leafy vegetables), fruits and fruit juices, nuts, beans, peas, dairy products, poultry and meat, eggs, seafood, and grains, spinach, liver, yeast, asparagus, and brussels sprouts (5)

 

Magnesium

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement: 500-1000 mg (4)

 

Good Food Sources: Almonds, spinach, cashews and other nuts, fortified cereals, soy milk, black beans, edamame, peanut butter, whole wheat bread, avocado, potato, yogurt, brown rice, yogurt, banana, salmon, milk, animal products, broccoli (5)

 

Zinc

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement:  50-200 mg (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  Oysters, beef, crab, fortified breakfast cereals, lobster, pork, baked beans, cheese, cashews, chicken, peas, flounder, almonds, chickpeas, kidney beans (5)

 

B12

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement:  500-1000 mcg (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  Clams, beef liver, fortified breakfast cereals, trout salmon, tuna, milk, yogurt, cheese, eggs chicken, haddock (5)

 

Vitamin K

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement:  60-80 mcg (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  kale, broccoli, parsley, spinach, swiss chard, brussels sprouts, cabbage, dark leafy greens (4,5)

 

Potassium

 

How much you may need per day if you use a supplement:  100-300 mg (4)

 

Good Food Sources:  dried figs, California avocado, papaya, banana, dates, citrus fruits, milk, yogurt, nuts, beef, chicken, fish, potatoes (with skins) (4,5)

 

* Individual needs may vary.  Speak with your health care provider or nutritionist for your personalized recommendations. 

 

About the Author: Leanne DiMaio earned her Master’s degree in Applied Clinical Nutrition from New York Chiropractic College in December 2017. She is currently working on her Doctorate degree in Clinical Nutrition degree at Maryland University of Integrative Health.  Leanne is passionate about helping others achieve their optimal state of health and wellness. She is currently earning clinical hours toward the Certified Nutrition Specialist (CNS) credential under Kim Ross's supervision.

 

References

1.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FastStats. Cdc.gov. 2017. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/drug-use-therapeutic.htm. Accessed June 3, 2018.

2.Society for Vascular Surgery. Hyperlipidemia. Vascular.org. 2018. Available at: https://vascular.org/patient-resources/vascular-conditions/hyperlipidemia. Accessed June 19, 2018.

3. Mayo Clinic Staff. Cholesterol medications: Consider the options. Mayo Clinic. 2015. Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-cholesterol/in-depth/cholesterol-medications/art-20050958. Accessed June 19, 2018.

4.  Vagnini F, Fox B. The Side Effects Bible. New York: Broadway Books; 2005.

5. United States Department of Agriculture. Vitamins and Minerals | Food and Nutrition Information Center. Nalusda.gov. 2018. Available at: https://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/vitamins-and-minerals. Accessed June 3, 2018.

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